A golf ball that strikes the toe of the club may result in a straight shot but it certainly will not fly its full distance. If your grip pressure is sufficiently light enough or the ball hits far enough in the toe, it may also result in a twisting nature of the club head which produces a weak ball flight that flies higher and shorter than normal and also to the right of your target.
Standing too far away from the golf ball can be one of the most obvious reasons for a toe strike. If, during the setup position, you feel overly stretched towards the ball, it is likely your hands may pull back away from the ball during the downswing which will result in the toe strike.
Becoming off-balance during the swing can also be another major cause of toeing the ball. If, during your downswing motion, you feel your body weight moves too much back towards your heels, you may feel your hands pull away from the ball and again cause a toe shot. This may become more obvious in the follow-through position if you are unable to maintain your balance to a posed finish.
One final checkpoint, to ensure a good clean contact on the ball and a reduction in the number of toe shots, would be to ensure that your arms are returning to a fully extended position at impact. If your arms are fully extended in the address position, they should return to the same position for impact. Particularly take notice of the position of your front elbow at, and just after, impact.
If you notice the elbow is bending and pulling in during the downswing phase, this could result in toe hits and inconsistent ball striking in general.